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In typography, a counter or aperture is an area entirely or partially enclosed by a letter form or a symbol (the counter-space/ the hole of). Letters containing closed counters include A, B, D, O, P, Q, R, a, b, d, e, g, o, p, and q. Letters containing open counters include c, f, h, i, s etc. The digits 0, 4, 6, 8, and 9 also possess a counter.

letter l typography
The partially enclosed, somewhat rounded negative space in some characters.
The aperture is the partially enclosed, somewhat rounded negative space in some characters such as n, C, S, the lower part of e, or the upper part of a double-storey a.

The typographic symbol used to designate the word and (& ) is the Latin symbol for et which means and. The name, ampersand , is believed to be derived from the phrase “and per se and.” On a standard English layout keyboard the ampersand (&) is accessed with shift+7. In many fonts the ampersand looks much like a cursive S or a curvy plus sign but in other fonts you can almost see the word Et in the design of the ampersand.
Also Known As: & | and

japan typography exhibition
書道 習字 美文字 Shodo Japanese Calligraphy


Shodō 書道
In modern calligraphy, a number of tools are used to make a composition.
The basic tools were collectively called Four Treasures of the Study (文房四宝 bunbō shihō).

A brush (筆 fude).
An inkstick (墨 sumi). The best inksticks are between 50 and 100 years old.
Mulberry paper (和紙 washi).
An inkstone (硯 suzuri) to grind the inkstick against, mixed with water.
A paper weight (文鎮 bunchin) to hold the paper in place.
A cloth (下敷き shitajiki) to place under the paper (often newsprint is used as well) to prevent ink from bleeding through.
A seal (印 in). The art of engraving a seal is called "tenkoku" 篆刻. The student is encouraged to engrave his own seal. The position of the seal or the seals is based on aesthetic views. One is not allowed to put a seal on a sutra's calligraphy.

Typography is the art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible.


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