Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic and sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may involve considerable research, thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design.

Monetary Illustration

Land Management

Plant trees & plants to absorb more CO2, reduce tropical deforestation.


Convert waste vegetation - leaves, straw, etc. - into charcoal & bury.


Burn biomass for fuel. Capture the resulting CO2 & bury it.

Carbon Capture

Separate out industrial CO2 & bury it undergroud in old oil wells.

Paint it White

Paint roofs, roads, & pavements bright white to reflect lots of sunlight.

Carbon Scrubbers

Use giant towers & artificial trees to scrub pure CO2 from the air.

Enhanced Land Weathering

Accelerate natural CO2 absorption by rocks by adding minerals to soil.

Enhanced Ocean Weathering

Stir megatonnes of limestone into oceans so more CO2 is absorbed by less acidic waters.

Cloud Whitening

Air-spray particles of sea salt to make clouds whiter & reflect more sunlight.

Ocean Fertilisation

Add iron filings to surface water & boost growth of CO2 - absorbing algae.

Stratospheric Aerosols

Scatter sulphate particles high in the atmosphere to reflect sunlight & lower heat.

Space Reflectors

Launch thousands of orbiting mirrors to divert sunlight away from the surface.

Desert Reflectors

Cover vast areas of unused land with foil. No, seriously.

All-Out Nuclear War

Fill the atmosphere with terratonnes of soot, dropping temperatures.

Boosting energy efficiency: The energy used to power, heat, and cool our homes, businesses, and industries is the single largest contributor to global warming. Energy efficiency technologies allow us to use less energy to get the same—or higher—level of production, service, and comfort. This approach has vast potential to save both energy and money, and can be deployed quickly.